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About Coyotes.........A Primer

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This is from DesertUSA: http://www.desertusa.com/june96/du_cycot.html


It is a very good primer on Canis Latrans.....the Coyote:


Coyote Geography - Range

The ubiquitous Coyote is found throughout North America from eastern Alaska to New England and south through Mexico to Panama. It originally ranged primarily in the northwest corner of the US, but it has adapted readily to the changes caused by human occupation and, in the past 200 years, has been steadily extending its range. Sightings now commonly occur in Florida, New England and eastern Canada.


Description of the Coyote

The Coyote is a member of the dog family. In size and shape the Coyote is like a medium-sized Collie dog, but its tail is round and bushy and is carried straight out below the level of its back.

Coyotes found in low deserts and valleys weigh about 20 pounds, less than half of their mountain kin, who can weigh up to 50 pounds. Desert Coyotes are light gray or tan with a black tip on the tail.

Coyotes of high elevations have fur that is darker, thicker and longer; the under parts are nearly white, with some specimens having a white tip on the tail. In winter the coats of mountain Coyotes become long and silky, and trappers hunt them for their fur.



The Coyote is one of the few wild animals whose vocalizations are commonly heard. At night Coyotes both howl (a high quavering cry) and emit a series of short, high-pitched yips. Howls are used to keep in touch with other coyotes in the area. Sometimes, when it is first heard, the listener may experience a tingling fear of primitive danger, but to the seasoned outdoorsman, the howl of the Coyote is truly a song of the West.


Howling - communication with others in the area." Also, an announcement that "I am here and this is my area. Other males are invited to stay away but females are welcome to follow the sound of my voice. Please answer and let me know where you are so we don't have any unwanted conflicts.


Yelping - a celebration or criticism within a small group of coyotes." Often heard during play among pups or young animals.


Bark - The scientific name for coyotes means "Barking dog," Canis latrans. The bark is thought to be a threat display when a coyote is protecting a den or a kill.


Huffing - is usually used for calling pups without making a great deal of noise."



The Coyote's tail is used in threat displays. It becomes bush and is held horizontally when the Coyote displays aggression.



The Coyote's hearing is very acute and is used for detecting prey and avoiding danger. Movement and position of the ears is used to communicate mood and rank.



The Coyote's sense of smell is highly developed and is used to detect prey and carrion. It is also used to detect the scent left by other Coyotes as territorial markers.



The Coyote has 5 digits on the forefeet, including the dewclaw (remnants 5th digit) and 4 digits on the hindfeet. the Coyote is digitigrade meaning it walks with only its toes touching the ground.

Coyote Behavior

One of the most adaptable animals in the world, the Coyote can change its breeding habits, diet and social dynamics to survive in a wide variety of habitats.

Alone, in pairs or in packs, Coyotes maintain their territories by marking them with urine. They also use calls to defend this territory, as well as for strengthening social bonds and general communication.


Coyote Vital Statics

Weight: 15-45 lbs.

Length with tail: 40-60"

Shoulder Height: 15-20"


Sexual Maturity: 1-2 years

Mating Season: Jan-March

Gestation Period: 58-65 days


No. of Young: 2-12, 6 avg.

Birth Interval: 1 year


Lifespan: 15 years in the wild


Typical diet: Small mammals, insects, reptiles, fruit & carrion Curious Coyote Facts


Only 5-20% of Coyote pups survive their first year.


The Coyote can run at almost 40 mph.


Coyotes can breed with both domestic dogs and wolves. A dog-coyote mix is called a "coydog."


The Coyote is more likely afraid of you than vice-versa.


Coyotes maintain their territory by marking it with urine.


Although the Coyote usually digs its own den, it will sometimes enlarge an old badger hole or perhaps fix up a natural hole in a rocky ledge to suit its own needs. Dens are usually hidden from view, but they are fairly easy to locate because of the trails that lead away from the den. The Coyote uses the den to birth its young and to sleep. The Coyote does not hibernate.


Coyotes have a good sense of smell, vision and hearing which, coupled with evasiveness, enables them to survive both in the wild and occasionally in the suburban areas of large cities. They are common in most rural areas, but because of their secretive nature, few are seen. Efforts to control or exterminate the Coyote by predator control agents seem to have produced an animal that is extremely alert and wary and well able to maintain itself.



Coyotes inhabit all life zones of the Desert Southwest from low valley floors to the crest of the highest mountains, but especially on open plains, grasslands and high mesas. Its natural habitat is open grassland, but it will move to wherever food is available.


Some studies indicate that in the desert, valleys and low foothills, Coyotes occupy a range of no more than 10 or 12 square miles. In mountainous areas they probably have both a summer and winter range, as heavy snows drive them to lower elevations.


The Coyote often tracks its prey using its excellent sense of smell, then stalk it for 20-30 minutes before pouncing. It may also take advantage of its stamina to chase its prey over long distances, and then striking when the quarry is exhausted.



At the beginning of the mating season in January, several lone male Coyotes may gather around a female to court her, but she will form a relationship with only one of them. The male and female desert Coyote may travel together before mating in January or February.


The female bears one litter of 3 to 9 puppies a year, usually in April or May when food is abundant. The gestation period is from 63 to 65 days.


The pups are born blind in a natal den, but their eyes open after about 14 days and they emerge from the den a few days later. They suckle for 5 to 7 weeks, and start eating semi-solid food after 3 weeks. While the male helps support the family with regurgitated food, the mother does not allow him to come all the way into the den.


The pups live and play in the den until they are 6 to 10 weeks old, when the mother starts taking them out hunting in a group. The family gradually disbands, and by fall the pups are usually hunting alone. Within a year, they go their own way, staking out their own territory, marked with the scent of their urine.

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